ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. H42H40Q15
"Regular monitoring of intraocular pressure is one of the most important ophthalmological examinations, and increased eye pressure can, in the extreme, lead to blindness."Dr. med. Mira SeidelArticle overviewGreen Star
- Causes and risk factors
- Examinations and diagnosis
- Disease course and prognosis
Green Star: Description
A glaucoma (glaucoma) refers to a group of eye diseases that, in an advanced stage, damage the nerve cells of the light-sensitive retina (retina) and the optic nerve (optic nerve). The name of the disease has nothing to do with the avifauna. The old term "green star" describes on the one hand the frequently observed (blue) greenish shimmering of the iris in advanced glaucoma, on the other hand the "rigid look" when the eye is blind.How does green cataract develop? Left untreated, glaucoma leads to blindness. Watch the video to see what warning signs you can recognize and how eye disease develops. Untreated, glaucoma causes blindness. Watch the video to see what warning signs you can recognize and how it develops.
This is how Green Star is made
In the majority of cases, Green Star is associated with increased pressure in the eyeball. This arises when in the anterior chamber, where the eye lens is located, more aqueous humor is formed than can be derived via the drainage system in the chamber angle. The constant exchange of aqueous humor is important for the function of the eye. The aqueous humor carries nutrients and oxygen to the lens and the cornea, which do not have their own blood vessels. In addition, the aqueous humor serves as an optical medium. If it accumulates in the anterior chamber, the pressure in the eye increases.
The intraocular pressure is measured with a so-called applanation tonometer. The device determines how much pressure is needed to deform a specific area of the arched cornea of the eye (the clear skin layer in front of the pupil). The higher the intraocular pressure, the higher the force that must be expended. The unit of measurement for the pressure in the eyeball is "millimeters of mercury" (mmHg), the same unit that is also used, for example, for blood pressure. Normal values for intraocular pressure are between 10 and 21 mmHg and can fluctuate by about five mmHg during the day - the highest values occur at night and early in the morning. In glaucoma, the pressure in the eyeball can increase to values of 40 to 60 mmHg.
Due to the increased pressure in glaucoma the blood supply and nutrition of the sensitive nerve cells are disturbed. Visual disturbances, so-called visual field defects, are therefore among the typical signs of glaucoma. If a green star goes unnoticed or is not treated medically enough, the affected person can even lose sight.
Green cataracts can lead to blindness
Green cataract is one of the most common causes of blindness. In the industrial nations, the diagnosis "Green Star" ranks third among the causes of blindness. The Initiative for early detection of glaucoma estimates that around 800,000 people in Germany suffer from glaucoma. But only about two-thirds of the diagnosis is known - in many cases, those affected know nothing about the disease. If the affected person perceives the visual disturbances themselves, the damage to the retina and / or optic nerve is often already well advanced. If damage has already been caused by glaucoma, it usually can not be reversed.
Green cataracts are more common with increasing age. On the other side of the age of 75, seven to eight percent of people are affected; after the age of 80, a green star even hits between 10 and 15 percent.
Four basic forms of glaucoma
Green Star can occur in different forms. Ophthalmologists (ophthalmologists) divide the variants according to anatomy and glaucoma causes into four major groups:
The primary open-angle glaucoma (sometimes referred to as "wide-angle glaucoma") arises when the outflow of aqueous humor is disturbed by plaques. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of cataract in the elderly. The Normal tension glaucoma is a subtype of open-angle glaucoma in which, however, the outflow of aqueous humor is not disturbed and thus the pressure in the eyeball is not increased abnormally.
In narrow-angle glaucoma, the anterior chamber of the eye - usually due to the condition - is so shallow that the iris's iris deepens or even blocks the angle of the chamber. This happens especially when the pupil is dilated by darkness or by the action of drugs (or drugs) and the iris in the chamber angle "unfolds". The outflow of aqueous humor is thus impeded or even completely prevented (Angle closure glaucoma), If this outflow disorder occurs by accident, it manifests itself as Glaukomanfall - an ophthalmological emergency. The pressure in the eye can rise so much that the retina and nerves are immediately and permanently damaged.
If a green star occurs in the newborn or toddler, it is usually one primary congenital glaucoma - An incorrect development of the chamber angle, which therefore can not sufficiently dissipate the aqueous humor formed in the eye.
Secondary ("acquired") glaucoma is called a green star, if other diseases, inflammations or injuries are responsible for the outflow disorder of the aqueous humor. For example, altered blood vessels, scarring or inflammatory cells may partially or completely block the angle of the chamber.