Yellow fever


yellow fever is a life-threatening viral infectious disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. It occurs only in tropical Africa and South America. In severe cases, yellow fever ends fatally in more than every other case. For this reason, a preventive vaccine against the infection is very important. When entering and leaving the country, it is even mandatory. Here you can read everything you need to know about yellow fever.

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. A95ArtikelübersichtGelbfieber

  • description
  • symptoms
  • Causes and risk factors
  • Examinations and diagnosis
  • treatment
  • Disease course and prognosis

Yellow fever: description

Yellow fever is caused by the yellow fever virus. It is caused by the bite of infected yellow fever mosquitoes (Egyptian tiger mosquito, Aedes aegypti) transferred to humans. The disease only occurs permanently in certain regions of the world. These are called yellow fever endemic areas. They are located in tropical Africa and South America. Travelers with the appropriate destination should be sure to check in advance if a yellow fever vaccine is required. Asia, Australia, Europe and Oceania are currently considered yellow fever free.

Tropical physicians annually report about 200,000 yellow fever diseases and 30,000 deaths worldwide. About 90 percent of them are in Africa. Every suspicion, every illness and every death by yellow fever is notifiable. Nevertheless, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there is a high level of unreported cases. This means that even more people get yellow fever, but these cases either not reported or not recognized as such.

There are two types of yellow fever: the Jungle Yellow Fever and the City Yellow Fever, The naming depends on where and by whom you are infected. Originally, the reservoir is the pathogen, that is, the animals in which the viruses normally reside and multiply, living in the jungle monkeys. Mosquitoes transfer the viruses from one monkey to the other there. When people are in the jungle, they run the risk of being stung and infected as well. Due to the origin of this species is called jungle yellow fever. It mainly affects young men, such as forest workers.

In contrast, the city yellow fever. In this case, a person suffering from yellow fever stays with other people. If the carrier mosquitoes are present, there is a danger of an epidemic. That is, via the mosquitoes, the yellow fever spreads from person to person in a specific region.

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Yellow fever: symptoms

The yellow fever symptoms develop about three to six days after infection. This time will be incubation period called. Yellow fever has a mild course in about 85 percent of cases, which roughly corresponds to the symptoms of a flu infection. After just a few days, those affected feel better again and recovery occurs. In the remaining 15 percent of the cases, the disease is very difficult. In particular, an organ failure of liver and kidney occurs. In the further course it can come in the context of a multi-organ failure to bleeding all over the body. For this reason, the yellow fever is counted among the group of hemorrhagic fevers (as well as Ebola, Lassa fever, etc.). About 50 to 60 percent of people with this severe form die.

Attention! Yellow fever is not to be confused with jaundice. Jaundice is colloquially a yellowing (icterus) of the skin and eyes due to a disturbed bile outflow, for example in hepatitis (hepatitis) or cholangitis (bile duct inflammation). Although jaundice can occur with yellow fever, it is only one of the possible symptoms.

Easy course (about 85 percent)

For about three to four days, patients complain of flu-like symptoms. These include:

  • Fever up to 40 ° C
  • chills
  • a headache
  • body aches
  • Muscle aches
  • nausea
  • Vomit