ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. O03O06ArtikelübersichtFehlgeburt
- Miscarriage: causes and risk factors
- Causes and risk factors
- Examinations and diagnosis
- Disease course and prognosis
In a miscarriage (medical: abortion), a pregnancy ends before the child is viable. A child is considered medically viable after the twenty-third week of gestation and over four hundred grams of birthweight. If the pregnancy ends after this time, it is called premature birth if the child is born alive. In this case, special measures are taken to keep the child alive. These include drugs for lung maturation and intensive care treatment. However, if the child already died in the womb, it is stillbirth.
Abortions are also subdivided over time. An early abortion is a miscarriage before the 13th week of pregnancy. Between the 14th and 24th week of pregnancy is called the late abortion.
If the miscarriage results from natural causes, the doctor speaks of the spontaneous abortion. On the other hand, there are so-called artificial, ie artificially induced abortions through medical or chemical measures. An example of this would be abortion.
About 15 percent of medically diagnosed pregnancies end in miscarriage. There are also pregnancies that can only be detected in the laboratory. This shows the increase of a certain value (ß-hCG), but clinically there are still no signs. If these pregnancies are included, the frequency of abortion is around 50 to 70 percent. It is also observed that miscarriage risk increases with each loss suffered. The age of the mother plays an additional role; As a rule, the likelihood of abortion increases with age.To the table of contents
The signs of miscarriage depend on the various forms of abortion. Read all important about it in the post miscarriage: signs and symptoms.To the table of contents
Miscarriage: causes and risk factorsTo the table of contents
Video: Miscarriage: signs and causesMiscarriage: signs and causesA "taboo topic" openly addressed. Learn in the video how a miscarriage is announced and what reasons there are. Many more exciting videos around the topic of pregnancy can be found here: Take a look! A "taboo topic" once openly addressed. Learn in the video how a miscarriage is announced and what reasons there are. You can find many more exciting videos about pregnancy here: Watch now!
If it comes to a miscarriage, this can have different causes. Frequently several factors come together at the same time.
Risk factors of the mother
A distinction is made between risk factors that affect the female genital organ and those that derive from the rest of the maternal body. Miscarriage triggers that affect the genitals are:
Malformations of the uterus
In some cases, the uterus (uterus) is duplicated or has only one fallopian tube. According to a University of Washington study, the greatest risk of miscarriage is when the uterine cavity is divided by a muscle or fiber wall. In addition, lack of space in the uterus can cause late abortions.
Tumors of the uterus
If the uterus is changed by a tumor, the child may not be properly cared for and there will be an abortion. Sometimes the fertilized egg can not nest properly in the mucous membrane.
If the cervix opens too soon due to weakness of the musculature, a miscarriage is imminent. He no longer holds the fruit in the uterine cavity. In addition, germs can rise so easily, which promotes a miscarriage. This insufficient closing and holding function is above all a risk for late abortions.
Pathogens can, for example, infect the cervix or uterine lining. The resulting inflammation causes a loss of function and a miscarriage can follow. In addition, the pathogens can pass to the child. If the mother cake (placenta) is affected, the fetus can no longer be properly treated.
With regard to the miscarriage risk is primarily the luteal weakness (medical: corpus luteum insufficiency) of importance. The yellow body arises after ovulation in the ovary. He usually produces hormones, the progestins. In pregnancy, they prevent the bleeding of the endometrium (= menstrual bleeding). If the luteal function is disturbed, it can no longer fulfill its function and miscarriage occurs. The miscarriage cycle should be observed, especially in the case of irregularities.
Generally, the likelihood of miscarriage increases with age. According to a recent Danish study, the risk of abortion in women is already elevated when they are over 30 years old.
With each pregnancy, the risk increases that the next one ends in a miscarriage. One of the most important factors for this is the cervix, as a result of many vaginal deliveries.
Other maternal causes of miscarriage include:
The most common anemia is iron deficiency. This can lead to undersupply of the child with oxygen. In addition, the mother cake is then often too small, which can also lead to a deficiency supply of the fetus.
Febrile infections can stimulate the uterine musculature, triggering contractile contractions. In addition, bacterial toxins are transmitted through the blood to the fetus and can damage it.
Diabetes (diabetes) or hyperthyroidism increases the risk of abortion. These diseases affect, for example, the luteal function, or the cakes can not develop properly by vascular damage. If the parathyroid glands work insufficiently, the calcium content of the blood falls. This can lead to excessive cramping of the uterus, causing miscarriage.
Risk factors of the father
Not only the mother but also the father can deliver risk factors for a miscarriage. Defective sperm can increase the risk of abortion. In case of increased abortions, a spermiogram may provide information. The appearance, number and flexibility are assessed. Studies have shown that the likelihood of altered sperm increases with age.
Risk factor immune system
There are disorders in the immune system of the mother, which favor a miscarriage. In the most important, the body's defense attacks the fertilized egg. The implantation usually does not occur first. If it does, it is defective and ends in the early abortion.