Diseases

Sarcoidosis

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Martina Feichter

Martina Feichter studied biology in Innsbruck with an optional subject in pharmacy and also immersed herself in the world of medicinal plants. From there it was not far to other medical topics that still captivate her today. She trained as a journalist at the Axel Springer Academy in Hamburg and has been working for lifelikeinc.com since 2007 - first as an editor and since 2012 as a freelance author.

More about the lifelikeinc.com experts Sarcoidosis (Boeck's disease) is an inflammatory disease that can be acute or chronic. Typical feature are nodular tissue changes. They can form everywhere in the body and disturb the function of the organs concerned. The most common form of the disease is chronic sarcoidosis of the lungs: Patients suffer from chronic coughing and difficulty breathing. Read all important information about symptoms, causes, treatment and prognosis of sarcoidosis.

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. D86ArtikelübersichtSarkoidose

  • description
  • symptoms
  • Causes and risk factors
  • Examinations and diagnosis
  • treatment
  • Course and prognosis

Quick Overview

  • What is Sarcoidosis? Inflammatory disease that accompanies the formation of nodular tissue changes. It usually affects the lungs, but can also occur in other tissues and organs.
  • symptoms: depend on the organs involved and the course of the disease (acute or chronic). Typical signs of chronic sarcoidosis of the lung (most common form) are increasing irritable cough, stress-related dyspnea and swollen lymph nodes in the lung area.
  • Reason: unknown. Presumably, however, several factors are involved in the pathogenesis. In addition to genetic factors are suspected harmful substances that have been inhaled.
  • Therapy: Not always necessary because sarcoidosis often heals by itself (especially acute sarcoidosis). Patients should be treated for severe symptoms and / or impaired lung function. Therapy of the first choice are cortisone preparations.
  • Forecast: Mostly cheap, especially in acute sarcoidosis. The more advanced the chronic sarcoidosis, the worse the chances of recovery. In some patients, pulmonary function remains permanently limited. About five percent of sarcoidosis patients die of complications.
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Sarcoidosis: description

The Sarcoidosis (Boeck's disease) is an inflammatory disease that can affect various organs and tissues in the body. That is why it is also called a multi-system disease.

In most cases, sarcoidosis affects thelung, Also Eyes, heart and skin are more likely to be affected. In principle, however, sarcoidosis can also be found in other parts of the body, for example in the area of ​​bones, kidneys, parotid and pancreas as well as in the central nervous system. Accordingly diverse are the possible symptoms of Boeck's disease.

Sarcoidosis is one of the so-called granulomatous diseases. Their classic feature is small, nodular tissue changes, These so-called granulomas are visible under the microscope. Why they form is so far unclear. However, medical experts suspect that hereditary factors associated with certain environmental factors can cause sarcoidosis.

Sarcoidosis: frequency

In Western Europe, approximately 40 to 50 out of 100,000 people are estimated to have sarcoidosis. The highest rates of morbidity occur in Sweden and Iceland, as well as in people of dark skinned skin in the United States.

The disease occurs usually between 20 and 40 years on. Women are slightly more affected than men.

Sometimes children also get sarcoidosis. A disease up to the fourth year of life is called "early childhood sarcoidosis" referred to (early onset sarcoidosis, EOS or blue syndrome). This rare form of disease is usually based on a genetic defect.

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Sarcoidosis: symptoms

After the course, doctors differentiate acute and chronic sarcoidosis, The symptoms that occur depend on the type of disease, the severity of the disease (sarcoidosis stages: see below) and the organs affected.

Acute Sarcoidosis

Acute sarcoidosis accounts for only about 10 percent of all cases. The symptoms are quite sudden here. Mostly the lungs are affected. Typical are:

  • fever and fatigue
  • painful, at first red, later bluish nodules under the skin (Erythema nodosum)
  • painful joint swelling and inflammation (arthritis)
  • lymphadenopathy in the area of ​​both lungs

The Erythema nodosum occurs in sarcoidosis preferably on the front sides of the lower leg. The sites are very sensitive to pain. In severe cases, even the weight of clothing on the affected skin can cause pain. The skin nodules are formed by inflammation of the fatty tissue directly under the skin. Possible causes of this inflammation are, in addition to sarcoidosis, for example, also infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases.

The arthritis (Arthritis) in acute sarcoidosis usually affects the hocks. The patients are especially in pain when walking. It can also inflame several joints simultaneously (polyarthritis).

Swollen lymph nodes are found in acute sarcoidosis in the area of ​​the main bronchi and the large pulmonary vessels. This area is called lung hili. The swelling usually causes no complaints, but are clearly visible on the radiograph. Lymph node swelling is a very typical feature of Boeck's disease. In people who otherwise have no symptoms, Boeck's disease is often caused by these alone "Bihilar lymphadenopathy" detected in the x-ray.

Typical Sarcoidosis SymptomsSarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease in which the tissue changes nodularly. Most of the lungs are affected, but it can also cause symptoms on other organs.

The three symptoms of lymph node swelling in the lung area, erythema nodosum and arthritis are also referred to as the "triad of acute sarcoidosis" or Löfgren syndrome.

Chronic sarcoidosis

About 90 percent of all patients have one chronic sarcoidosis, Lungs and adjacent lymph nodes are most commonly affected. Some patients do not notice their condition. In others, the symptoms develop slowly and creepingly: increasing cough and Stress-related dyspnea, On the x-ray you can see the swollen lymph nodes on the so-called Lungenhili (bihilar lymphadenopathy). Other chronic sarcoidosis signs are:

  • light fever
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • Joint pain (arthritis)

In principle, Boeck's disease can affect the entire body (extrapulmonary sarcoidosis). This results in different symptoms:

Sarcoidosis - Eyes: Different structures in the eye can be affected here. In many patients, for example, both the iris (iris) and the so-called ciliary body (on which the eye lens is suspended) are inflamed. This so-called iridocyclitis causes eye pain, which occurs especially in bright light.

Sarcoidosis - Skin: Chronic sarcoidosis in the area of ​​the skin triggers certain skin changes. These include the above-mentioned painful nodules under the skin (erythema nodosum). They form preferably on the front of the lower leg. In addition, bluish-purple skin discoloration may develop (lupus pernio), especially on the cheeks and nose.

Sarcoidosis - Heart: The heart may be severely affected by sarcoidosis. A slight infestation causes no complaints. Significant infestation can cause heart failure (heart failure) or cardiac arrhythmias. There is then the danger of serious complications!

Sarcoidosis - kidneys: If the kidneys are affected by sarcoidosis, they excrete more calcium with the urine. This favors the formation of kidney stones.

Sarcoidosis - Central nervous system (neurosarcoidosis): Sarcoidosis rarely attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). This often causes a failure of cranial nerves. If this concerns the facial nerve (facial nerve), the facial muscles are paralyzed as a result. This facial palsy usually occurs on one side. Neurosarcoidosis also often leads to meningitis (meningitis). Possible symptoms here are for example headache and vomiting.

Sarcoidosis - liver and spleen: Sarcoidosis of the liver and spleen usually causes no symptoms. The function of the two organs is practically not restricted. Only liver enzymes in the blood may be elevated as a result of sarcoidosis of the liver.

Heerfordt syndrome: In this special form of sarcoidosis, inflammation of the parotid glands and the eyes and swollen breast lymph nodes occur. In addition, a facial half can be paralyzed (facial paralysis).

Youth syndrome (Morbus Jüngling): The term refers to a chronic sarcoidosis in the area of ​​the bones. Very often the finger bones are affected.

The rare Early childhood sarcoidosis (EOS) triggers less obvious symptoms than the disease in adulthood. The possible signs range from fever, loss of appetite and tiredness to enlargement of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly).

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Sarcoidosis: causes and risk factors

The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unclear. However, different factors probably play a role in the pathogenesis.

Sarcoidosis affects the lungs in most patients. Researchers therefore suspect that the Inhalation of harmful substances activates the immune system in the lungs. This could then trigger the formation of the Gewebeknötchen (granulomas). Possible harmful substances include, for example, pollen, viruses, bacteria, fungal spores, dust and chemicals.

In addition are genetic factors involved in the development of Boeck's disease. Scientists have discovered genes in human genomes that are often altered in sarcoidosis. Some of these genetic changes (mutations) have been shown to increase the risk of sarcoidosis. Presumably, the affected genes have something to do with the function of the immune system. Their mutation is likely to make certain substances that are important to the immune system no longer or in a different form. This could trigger a miscommunication in the immune system - with the result that sarcoidosis arises.

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