Carola Felchner

Carola Felchner is a freelance author at lifelikeinc.com and a certified exercise and nutritionist. She worked at various trade magazines and online portals before becoming self-employed in 2015 as a journalist. Before her traineeship, she studied translating and interpreting in Kempten and Munich.

More about the lifelikeinc.com experts at People dyslexia (also: reading-spelling disorder, LRS) is the ability to read and write diminished. But that does not mean that dyslexics are less intelligent: they simply can not translate the spoken language into the written language, and vice versa. Boys are more affected than girls. Dyslexia is usually diagnosed at primary school age. It can be positively influenced by special support. Read all important information about dyslexia here!

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. F81ArtikelübersichtLegasthenie

  • symptoms
  • Special case: dyslexia
  • treatment
  • causes
  • diagnosis
  • History & Forecast

Quick Overview

  • symptoms: different degrees pronounced, u. a. Twisting, confusing or omitting letters, slow reading, uppercase and lowercase difficulties. Also mental problems due to the reading-spelling disorder are possible.
  • Causes: probably genetically conditioned
  • Frequency: An estimated three to five percent of primary school children are dyslexic boys about three times more likely than girls. Dyslexia is found in all social classes.
  • Diagnosis: at (pediatrician's) doctor about specific questions, hearing / sight and reading / writing tests
  • Treatment: targeted support measures, school discharge (pressure) and understanding
  • Forecast: early therapy can reduce deficits
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Dyslexia: symptoms

Albert Einstein, Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei had something in common: their genius is not meant - all three had dyslexia, also Read spelling disorder (LRS) or special reading spelling weakness called. Dyslexia therefore does not exclude a (high) talent in other areas. So are dyslexics the remaining school achievements usually in the normal range, Studies indicate that only the brain areas responsible for reading and / or writing are restricted in those affected.

The symptoms of dyslexia can be very different. Most sufferers have both one Dyslexics as well as one Spelling disorder, But there are also dyslexics who have only one of the two disorders.

Symptoms of a reading disorder: The affected people often need a lot of time to start reading, usually read very slowly and give words wrong again. Often, they omit, twist or replace word parts. They may interchange letters or words so that they do not properly understand what they have just read.

Symptoms of a spelling error: The victims often write words as they have heard them. They therefore quite often confuse letters (such as b with p, c with k or p with q). Sometimes they also omit letters altogether (eg truth without "h") or insert them in the wrong order. Often, they also make word breaks incorrect and have uppercase and lowercase problems.

Other signs: Dyslexia is a burden for affected schoolchildren. Since they have to laboriously work on unfamiliar words, they are often under time pressure in class work. Also, that they usually make many mistakes, is psychologically stressful. Accordingly, (young) dyslexics often have little self-confidence and fear of school. This can develop into tests for veritable panic attacks and / or physical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Even depression is possible.

Along with a reading and / or spelling disorder sometimes also a reduced ability to calculate (dyscalculia) occurs.

Not to be confused with reading and spelling weakness!

Dyslexia is something other than a "normal" reading and writing weakness. The latter can occur intermittently, such as when a child is exposed to unfavorable psychosocial factors such as a change of residence or divorce of the parents. Genetic factors do not matter here. The child can - with the help of child psychology support - in most cases solve his reading and writing problems again.

Thus, a reading-spelling weakness is called dyslexia only if it is genetic. Sometimes the term "special reading-spelling weakness" is used.

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Special case: dyslexia

Dyslexia is a reading disorder that often occurs as part of a dyslexia. It can vary in severity and be favored by genetic factors. More often than one congenital dyslexia is however the acquired dyslexia: Here, the brain or reading brain region was damaged by an accident or stroke.

Typically, the reading speed of dyslexia slows dramatically. Often sufferers do not understand the read, slip in the line or twist letters.

A doctor can detect dyslexia using a variety of exams and a special test. With a lot of understanding, a special promotion and an adapted performance evaluation in the school you can effectively help affected children.

Read more about this topic in the article Dyslexia.

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Dyslexia: treatment

A dyslexia should treated as early as possible become. There are two reasons for this: Firstly, promotion measures are more promising if they are applied early. On the other hand, depending on the severity of the disorder, the likelihood that those affected drop out of school or have difficulty obtaining a qualified vocational training is less likely to occur early in treatment.

The important thing is: The affected child should be from parents and teachers a lot of understanding and patience Experienced. Achieving pressure at home and at school can make dyslexia worse. The same applies to offenses by classmates. Such adverse reactions of the learning disorder environment may also increase the risk that the dyslexic person becomes mentally ill. The child must be removed from this vicious cycle as quickly as possible.

In addition, a dyslexia can be targeted by Therapy measures influence positively. Mostly this requires extracurricular support. The children train with special reading and writing exercises. Come here rhythmic reading aids or computer programs for use.

Often the children need psychotherapeutic support beyond the promotion. This is especially true when concomitant mental illness (such as depression) occurs. Depression can prevent the child's literacy skills from improving.

Through a Change compensation (Colloquially Dyslexia adoption, LRS adoption) the educational achievements of a child with dyslexia in the sense of a "grade protection" are assessed differently. Thus, disadvantages for the child, which result from the learning disability, are compensated and the child is relieved of school pressure something. This can also lead to stigmatization. Often, however, the affected child (and family) is happy to have a diagnosis and builds up confidence and self-esteem thanks to the "Grade Protection".

The disadvantage compensation is determined in each federal state by the respective Ministry of Culture. If a doctor diagnoses the learning disorder by means of dyslexia tests, an application for such a compensation can be made.