ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. P12ArtikelübersichtKephalhämatom
- Causes and risk factors
- Examinations and diagnosis
- Disease course and prognosis
The word cephalhematom describes a collection of blood in the head of a newborn. "Kephal" comes from the Greek and means "belonging to the head". As hematoma physicians refer to a bruise or a compact accumulation of blood in the tissue. The cephalic hematoma is formed in the natural birth by tearing small blood vessels between the outer cranial bone and its periosteum, when the child's head in the birth canal is exposed to large tangential forces (shear forces).
The skull construction in newborns
The skull of the newborn is still soft and deformable. Outside sits the so-called Kopfschwarte. These include the scalp with its hair and subcutaneous fatty tissue, as well as the hood-like muscle-tendon plate (Galea aponeurotica). Below is the skull bone, which consists of several parts that are not yet firmly grown together in the newborn. The skull bones on its inside and outside the so-called periosteum, which protects and nourishes the bone.
The cephalhematoma forms on the outside between the periosteum and the bone. It is bounded by the edges of the skull bone. This makes it easy to distinguish from another typical neoplasmic head swelling, the so-called birth tumor, a doughy-soft swelling under the scalp that exceeds the limits of the individual skull bones.
According to medical literature, in one to two births of 100, a cephalhematoma occurs. It is possible that at the same time the skull bone is incompletely broken (broken), it is called the "infraction".
Above all, forceps deliveries or suction-augmentations (vacuum extractions) are associated with the development of a cephalhematoma. Here, either so-called tongs or a suction cup attached to the child's head, thus facilitating the birth.To the table of contents
A cephalhemoma often manifests itself immediately after birth as a soft-dough, later as increasingly bulging-elastic and usually only one-sided existing swelling on the head of the newborn. It is most commonly produced on one of the two parietal bones, which form the top and back of the bony skull.
The cephalhematoma has a hemispherical shape and can grow to the size of a hen's egg. Since the periosteum is particularly sensitive to pain, the newborn can be more restless and cry more, especially when external pressure is applied to the cephalhematoma. In large or (rarely!) Multiple cephalic hematomas, the blood loss from the newborn's circulation may be so great as to cause anemia (anemia) or a lack of volume leading to circulatory shock.
If a cephalhematoma does not return or is very large, this may be an indication of a disturbed blood clotting of the newborn.To the table of contents
Cephalhematoma: causes and risk factors
The reason for the development of a cephalhematoma are shear forces acting on the neonatal head in the narrowness of the birth canal. Through these forces, the soft parts of the head move and the periosteum can be sheared off the bone. Under the periosteum located vessels tear it in and start to bleed. Since the periosteum is well supplied with blood, the bleeding can be relatively strong. If the space between the low-stretched periosteum and the bone is filled (signs: bumpy swelling), the bleeding comes to a standstill.
Cephalhematoma: risk factors
As a risk factors for the emergence of a cephalic hematoma apply especially the Saugglockengeburt and the forceps birth. But even a particularly rapid passage of the child's head through the maternal pelvis or a very narrow birth canal can cause similar shear forces and thus lead to a cephalhematoma. Another risk factor is the so-called occipital or crest position. The child's head is not downright forehead in the pelvic entrance of the mother, so that entry into the birth canal can be difficult.To the table of contents
Cephalhematoma: examinations and diagnosis
Often the cephalhematoma is already discovered by the midwife or the pediatrician shortly after birth. However, it may be that the hematoma is initially superimposed on the head of the newborn by the very frequent so-called birth swelling and only becomes noticeable after its decline after a few days. Midwife or pediatrician are your contact persons. Questions from the doctor at the introductory interview (anamnesis) could be: