ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. Q65ArtikelübersichtHüftdysplasie
- Causes and risk factors
- Examinations and diagnosis
- Disease course and prognosis
Hip dysplasia: description
Hip dysplasia is a congenital or acquired malformation of the acetabular cup. As a result, the still cartilaginous-soft femoral head of the femur does not find a stable hold in the acetabular cup. In the most severe case of hip dysplasia, hip dislocation, the head of the femur slips out of the socket.
Hip dysplasia and hip dislocation can only occur on one hip joint or on both joints. In a one-sided malformation, the right hip joint is much more affected than the left hip.
Hip dysplasia: frequency
Of 100 newborns, two to three have hip dysplasia. Hip dislocation is much rarer with a frequency of about 0.2 percent. Girls are more often affected than boys.
Hip dysplasia: adults
Unrecognized or late-treated hip dysplasia in babies severely restricts mobility later in life and can cause pain in adolescents. It can lead to premature wear-related changes, which can limit the choice of career and may lead to early disability. Malformations of the hip joint, such as hip dysplasia, promote early joint wear (osteoarthritis).To the table of contents
Hip dysplasia: symptoms
Hip dysplasia alone does not initially cause any discomfort. However, if it is not detected in time, damage to the acetabulum and head (such as a hip osteoarthritis in later life) or dislocation of the hip can occur.
In a hip dislocation of the femoral head (ie the head of the femur) jumps out of the socket. In this case, the baby can spread the legs only incomplete. The leg on the affected side appears shorter than the other. The anal furrow and pubic fold are shifted to the affected side. However, leg shortening and wrinkle asymmetry may be absent in bilateral hip dislocation.
As a result of hip dislocation, the "empty" socket can gradually deform. In some cases, the head of the femur can then no longer be restricted to the normal position.
In older children, hip dysplasia may result in a hollow back or "waddling". Such signs should prompt parents and their child to see a pediatrician or orthopedist.To the table of contents
Hip Dysplasia: Causes and Risk Factors
The exact causes of hip dysplasia are unknown. But there are risk factors that favor the development of this malformation:
- Incorrect position of the fetus in the womb: Children born in the lumbago or breech have approximately 25 times more often hip dysplasia than babies born in the normal birth position.
- Tight conditions in the womb, such as in a multiple pregnancy
- Hormonal factors: The pregnancy hormone progesterone, which loosens up the maternal pelvic ring in preparation for childbirth, probably causes a greater relaxation of the hip capsule in female fetuses - hip dysplasia can develop.
- Genetic predisposition: Already other family members had hip dysplasia.
- Malformations in the area of the spine, legs and feet
- Neurological or muscular diseases such as open back (spina bifida)
- Malposition of the hip joints after birth
Hip dysplasia: examinations and diagnosis
As part of the screening examinations, the pediatrician routinely checks every child for hip dysplasia already at U2 (third to tenth day of life). For a reliable diagnosis, he then performs an ultrasound examination of the hip at the U3 (in the 4th to 6th week of life). X-ray examination to diagnose hip dysplasia is usually unnecessary and also less reliable, as the still cartilaginous baby bones are less recognizable in the X-ray than in the ultrasound.
On physical examination, the following signs may indicate hip dysplasia: