Cerebral hemorrhage


To a cerebral hemorrhage (Brain hemorrhage) occurs when a blood vessel bursts in the brain. Doctors also speak of a stroke caused by cerebral hemorrhage (haemorrhagic cerebral infarction). The escaping blood can disturb the function in the affected brain area. For example, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICB), subarachnoid haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage are distinguished depending on where the cerebral hemorrhage occurs. Read more about causes, diagnosis and treatment of cerebral hemorrhage.

ICD codes for this disease: ICD codes are internationally valid medical diagnosis codes. They are found e.g. in medical reports or on incapacity certificates. I61I62S06I60ArtikelübersichtHirnblutung

  • description
  • symptoms
  • Causes and risk factors
  • Examinations and diagnosis
  • treatment
  • Disease course and prognosis

Cerebral haemorrhage: description

In a stroke caused by cerebral hemorrhage (haemorrhagic stroke or infarction) forms a bruise (hematoma) in the brain tissue, which results from the bursting of a blood vessel. It comes to dysfunction in the affected area, and the brain tissue dies partially.

The umbrella term cerebral hemorrhage encompasses various clinical pictures:

Intracerebral haemorrhage (parenchymatous haemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma)

An intracerebral hemorrhage (ICB) is a hemorrhage into the brain tissue (brain parenchyma), caused by the bursting of a cerebral vasculature. A major risk factor for this is hypertension, especially in combination with arteriosclerosis. Because intracerebral haemorrhage usually affects a relatively large area of ​​the brain, physicians also speak of brain mass haemorrhage. The term "intracerebral hematoma" is also used more often. After the exact location of the hematoma, this form of cerebral hemorrhage is subdivided further, for example into supra- or infratentorial hematomas. These are hematomas above or below the tentorium (small brain tent, a skin between the cerebellum and the cerebrum).

The intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for about ten percent of all strokes. The remaining 90 percent of the cases involve a stroke due to vascular occlusion (ischemic cerebral infarction).

Epidural haemorrhage (epidural haemorrhage, epidural hematoma)

In an epidural hemorrhage, blood accumulates between the skull bone and the outermost meninges (hard meninges or dura mater). This form of cerebral hemorrhage is usually traumatic and usually occurs in conjunction with a skull fracture.

Subdural hemorrhage (subdural haemorrhage, subdural hematoma)

In subdural haemorrhage, blood collects between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane. Again, the cause is usually a traumatic crack of blood vessels. In some cases the subdural hematoma develops rapidly / acutely, in other cases slowly / chronically. Overall, subdural hemorrhage is three to five times more common than epidural hemorrhage.

subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid haemorrhage develops directly on the brain surface and can lead to strokes. Read all about it in the article Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage!

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Cerebral haemorrhage: symptoms

You can read all about possible signs of cerebral hemorrhage in the article Cerebral Hemorrhage - Symptoms.

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Cerebral haemorrhage: causes and risk factors

high blood pressure

The most common cause of stroke due to cerebral hemorrhage (haemorrhagic cerebral infarction) is high blood pressure (hypertension). It causes the vessel walls to lose their elasticity over the years. Sudden spikes in blood pressure (for example, during exercise or a hypertensive crisis) can then easily rupture the vessels in the brain and cause cerebral hemorrhage.

Other causes

Ischemic strokes (cerebral infarction due to vascular occlusion) may bleed in their course.

Cerebral haemorrhage can also be caused by vascular malformations, such as sagging of the vessel wall (aneurysms, aneurysms). Another possible cause of cerebral hemorrhage is abnormally brittle vessels, such as amyloid angiopathy - a vascular disease whose cause is not well known. In the process, abnormally altered proteins (amyloids) are deposited in the vessel walls, which makes the vessels fragile. This can repeatedly lead to a brain hemorrhage. In the long term, these patients often suffer from mental deterioration (dementia).

In some cases, cerebral hemorrhage is a consequence of an increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis). Such is, for example, when taking anticoagulant drugs, hemophilia, platelet deficiency (thrombocytopenia) and leukemia.

Cerebral haemorrhage can also occur in connection with substance abuse (cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), traumatic brain injury and tumors.

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Cerebral haemorrhage: examinations and diagnosis

Rapid diagnosis and rapid onset of therapy are very important for cerebral hemorrhage.