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Do not be afraid to save your lifeQuick help is the most important. With a few simple steps, you can often save lives. But often it is the concern to do something wrong that slows down potential first responders. There are many misconceptions around First Aid - but it's easier to do than you think. The picture gallery shows what really matters.
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You can not go wrong!Even if you are afraid of making mistakes - as a witness of a medical emergency you should not be inactive! Call an emergency physician and bridge the time to its arrival with the most important life-sustaining measures according to your options: with chest compressions, artificial respiration or the stopping of life-threatening bleeding. For first aid applies: "Not perfect" is better than "not at all".
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Point one: the emergency callIn a medical emergency, the first step is always to call an ambulance. Only then do you take care of the injured. Otherwise too much time will be lost until the ambulance is on-site and can help you better than you can.
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When the stable side position is importantThe stable side position is only vaguely remembered by most in the first aid course. But it is only useful for unconscious people who can still breathe independently. With them, it prevents vomit or your own tongue from blocking the airways. In cardiac arrest, however, the cardiac massage is the only saving measure - and in the stable side position is not possible.
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Ventilation does not always have to beFirst responders are often overwhelmed with the rapid change between ventilation and chest compressions. In that case, you should focus on chest compressions. The blood often contains enough oxygen for a long time to keep the body and especially the brain alive. But it also has to get there. The chest compressions should therefore be interrupted as little as possible!
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When to stop bleedingIf blood is rhythmically injected from an artery, setting is important. Otherwise, even heavier bleeding is often not life-threatening. Bonding could then do more harm than good: The blood would clot and the hardened body part would not be sufficiently supplied. It is better in such situations to put on a pressure bandage or with a cloth and hands to press hard on the wound.
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Remove the helmet, but right!One misconception that persists is that you should not take the helmet off of unconscious motorcycle or cyclists. If the injured person can not be addressed, then "helmet off!" Applies and, if necessary, resuscitate. However, the neck should not be turned, bent or stretched and the head should not fall to the side. This is easier for two.
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Do not cool burns too much!Cold water from the line or ice packs relieve the pain of burns or burns, but lukewarm water is better. Especially with large-scale burns, the body otherwise cools dangerously-the injured skin can no longer fulfill its task of regulating temperature.
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Slowly warm up undercooled persons!Undercooled persons should only warm up slowly. Because in order to protect the organs inside the body, less blood circulates in the limbs - and is particularly cold there. Abruptly re-starts the blood circulation, it gets into the body and organs, which can be damaged in cold weather. This also applies if the person concerned is moved too much. Consequence is then z. B. a cardiac arrest. Therefore keep the subcooled always quiet and warm slowly!
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Broken bones: Quiet instead of splintsImproper splinting of broken bones is not only painful but can also hurt. It is better to store your injured limbs in a calm, slightly elevated position and shield them from movement - for example, with a rolled-up blanket underneath.
By Christiane FuxMedicine editor
Which symptoms occur? (depending on the immersion time)
Signs may be missing initially and may occur with a delay of several hours.
The following changes can occur depending on the immersion time:
- Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, foamy secretions, rattling breathing
- Fast pulse
- Bluish-grayish skin color, especially the lips and fingernails
- Confusion or consciousness cloudiness leading to loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest and severe hypothermia.
- Nostrils (tremors of the nostrils)
First aid measures
- Take the child out of the water!
- Talk to the child and check his state of consciousness.
- Do not try to remove the water from the lungs!
- If the child is approachable: remove soaked clothes, dry child, keep warm and calm.
- If the child is unresponsive, but continues to breathe, it should be placed in a stable lateral position.
- If respiratory arrest begins with the breath.
- If no pulse is palpable: perform a cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- Call the emergency doctor!
- Attention: Resuscitation should also be performed on infants and children who appear to be lifeless. With deep hypothermia, resuscitation on the heart-lung machine can be successful even after a long time.
- Carry out the measures until rescue arrives.
Every infant should be examined by a doctor after a drowning accident, as a short-term lack of oxygen can lead to impaired organ functions. However, this may only be recognizable after 24 to 48 hours.