- Mitral valve: inlet valve in the left heart
- Common problems of the mitral valve
Mitral valve: inlet valve in the left heart
The mitral valve (also called the bicuspid valve) directs blood flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle. It is like the other three heart valves formed by the heart endocardium (endocardium) and is a so-called sail flap. It consists of two corners, a front and a rear sail. Sinewy strands begin at the edges of the sails, continuations of the papillary muscles (these are small protuberances of the inner wall of the chamber). The sinew cords prevent the free-hanging lobes of the valve from contracting back into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle (systole) due to the pressure that results. As soon as systole begins, the free edges of the valve leaflets are firmly attached to each other by the flow of blood, closing the boundary between the atrium and the chamber completely tightly.
In the following diastole (relaxation phase of the ventricle), the blood flows from the atrium into the chamber - for this purpose, the flap must be fully open again.Properly measuring blood pressure. High blood pressure can be dangerous. See here how you can measure the values yourself. High blood pressure can be dangerous. See here how you can measure the values yourself. To the table of contents
Common problems of the mitral valve
In mitral stenosis, the mitral valve is narrowed, affecting the filling of the ventricle during diastole. In most cases, mitral stenosis is due to rheumatic heart valve inflammation, rarely is it congenital.
In mitral regurgitation, the mitral valve does not close tightly, allowing blood from the ventricle to flow back into the atrium during systole. The amount of blood circulating between the atrium and the ventricle leads to a volume load on the two cardiac atres. As a result, they dilate (dilatation). Possible causes of mitral insufficiency include, for example, rheumatic diseases, bacterial endocarditis, valve rupture or valve perforation.
A mitral valve prolapse is a protuberance of one or both valve leaflets during systole into the atrium. The flap can still be tight; but if it is more pronounced it can also be associated with a degree of insufficiency. The prolapse is partly innate, but in most cases the cause is unclear. The doctor can use the stethoscope to check the prolapse of the mitral valve perceive as a "systolic click".