Diseases

Hippocampus

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Of the hippocampus is the memory of our brain and the interface between short- and long-term memory. He is one of the few areas in the brain where new nerve cells can be formed for a lifetime. Read all important information about the hippocampus: Function, structure and important diseases and injuries!

Article overview hippocampus

  • What is the hippocampus?
  • What is the function of the hippocampus?
  • Where is the hippocampus?
  • What problems can the hippocampus cause?

What is the hippocampus?

The hippocampus is a brain region that belongs to the limbic cortex (limbic system). The name means "seahorse" because this brain region has a similar shape to the little marine creature. It belongs to the Allocortex, so a developmentally very old part of the cerebral cortex.

The hippocampus is part of a larger structure of the brain, the parahippocampal gyrus (a whorl of the cerebral cortex), at the base of the temporal lobe. It consists of several structures which together form the hippocampus formation:

  • Ammonhorn (Cornu ammonis): hippocampus in the narrower sense; consists of four zones
  • Dentate gyrus (dentate-looking cortical cortex turn)
  • Subiculum (transition area between the parahippocampal gyrus and the ammone horn)

The fornix - a bow-shaped fiber bundle - connects the hippocampus with the mammpora corpora. These are two rounded bumps on the floor of the diencephalon. In addition, there are also connections with other brain regions, including the olfactory bulb.

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What is the function of the hippocampus?

The hippocampus is the interface between short- and long-term memory. Through this switch, the contents of the short-term memory - depending on the meaning - are taken over in the long-term memory, where they can be stored and retrieved when needed.

The hippocampus serves as a central part of the limbic system of control of the emotions, here sit the center of emotional utterances such as anger, fear and joy. Also the sexual behavior and many vegetative functions are controlled in the Limbian system. By connecting to other brain regions, the hippocampus and amygdala (amygdala, also part of the limbic system) can emotionally rate signals.

Since the olfactory brain and hippocampus are in close proximity, fragrances and odors associated with memories are stored positively or negatively.

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