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Cerebrum

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The cerebrum (Cerebrum, end brain or telencephalon) form the largest part of the brain. Its division into two hemispheres is reflected on a functional level - each side has its own specific tasks. Also in the division of the cerebrum into different brain lobes can be read off different functions. Read everything important about the cerebrum: function, division into different brain regions and bars, brain disorders and injuries in this area!

Article overview cerebrum

  • What is the cerebrum?
  • What function does the cerebrum have?
  • Where is the cerebrum located?
  • What problems can the cerebrum cause?

What is the cerebrum?

The cerebrum (cerebrum or end brain) makes up the bulk of the human brain. It consists of a right and a left half (hemisphere), which are connected to each other via the bar (corpus callosum). Apart from the beam, there are other (small) connections (commissures) between the two halves of the brain.

Outer outline of the cerebrum

The two cerebral hemispheres can each be divided into four lobes:

  • Frontal lobe or frontal lobe (Lobus frontalis)
  • Parietal lobes or parietal lobes (parietal lobe)
  • Temporal lobes or temporal lobes (temporal lobe)
  • Occlusive lobes or occipital lobes (Lobus occipitalis)

The surface of the two cerebral hemispheres is ridged like a walnut and thus significantly enlarged. The numerous brain convolutions (gyri) are delimited by furrows (sulci).

Inner outline of the cerebrum

The cerebrum is divided into an outer part (bark or cerebral cortex, gray substance) and an inner part (pith, white matter).

The cerebral cortex (cerebral cortex) is between two and five millimeters thick. It consists of the isocortex (or neocortex) and the underlying allocortex. The isocortex has six layers and accounts for about 90 percent of the cerebral cortex. The Allocortex is developmentally older and has a three-layer structure. The oldest historical part of the Allocortex is called Paleocortex (Paleocortex). Together with the slightly younger Archicortex it forms the Allocortex.

The cerebral cortex consists of the cell bodies of billions of nerve cells (including pyramidal cells) and glial cells. The nerve cells have long processes (axons) in all directions. The marrow of the cerebrum consists of these nerve cell processes, which enable communication even with distant cells.

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What function does the cerebrum have?

The cerebrum is the supreme instance of the central nervous system. As a communication center it connects all our organs, organ systems and tissues and coordinates them. Thus, stimuli are taken up both from the environment and from the inside of our organism via receptors, transmitted via ascending nerve tracts to the brain and then assessed and processed in the cerebrum and the cerebral cortex. Depending on the nature of the stimuli, a response then takes place in the form of stimuli, which are given via descending nerve tracts to the periphery, internal organs and organ systems.

However, not all stimuli reach the cerebral cortex. Some information is processed very quickly and without awareness, in "lower" brain regions. For example, the central respiratory regulation takes place in the medulla oblongata (extended spinal cord or the hindbrain).

Each cerebral hemisphere is specialized in certain tasks: in the left areas of the cerebrum are usually language and logic, in the right cerebral areas, the creativity and the sense of direction.

Homunculus (brain)

The cerebral cortex has various motor and somatosensory areas that are assigned to specific body sections. Adjacent parts of the body are "imaged" on neighboring areas of the brain. The result is the model of a small, distorted human, called Homunculus.

The function of different cerebral areas

Among other things, the neocortex accommodates the ability to learn, speak and think, as well as consciousness and memory.

The forebrain brain (frontal lobe or frontal brain) contains the centers for voluntary movements and for the control and coordination of vegetative, affective and mental functions. In the motorized speech center (Broca area), the muscles that are important for speaking are represented - right-handed people in the left, left-handers in the right brain. The forebrain brain also contains the center for the movements of the eye muscles.

In the parietal lobe or parietal lobe of the cerebrum, there is the body sensory sphere, represented by sensory pathways that come from the skin and the muscles, and pass through the thalamus into the primary sensory cortical areas of the parietal lobe. Secondary sensitive bark fields store memories of sensations that have been created in the primary bark fields.

In the temporal lobe or temporal lobe lies on the outer surface of the primary auditory center, the end of the Hörbahn. The secondary auditory center, the acoustic memory center, adjoins the back. Some sections of the hearing center scan the constant flow of noise that flows through the ear into the brain, according to what is known and arrange it accordingly.

In the temporal lobe and in part also in the parietal lobe, there is the Wernicke area, which is especially important for the understanding of language. The Wernicke and Broca areas form the language center in the brain.

In the occipital lobe is the visual cortex, which is divided into a primary and a secondary visual center. Optical signals arrive here via the Sehbahn, are processed and interpreted. Become in the secondary visual center saved optical memory images.

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